The identifications created by BCI come from research done using a variety of sources. In order to enable readers of the site to conduct further research, we will cite the major sources used for the identifications. Each citation should appear in its own field (using the add field) icon to create multiple bibliographic citations.

You do not have to use multiple citations for the same piece of information; use the best sources, the ones that you got most of your information from. If the source is found online in a stable URL, include that as well.


We are using the Chicago Manual of Style bibliographical format: author (last name, first name), title (italics or underlined as needed), source if an article (journal, newspaper, etc.), date, pages. We don't generally include publisher's names unless there is some confusion. For a summary of the Chicago style, see

“News Notes,” The Birth Control Review, October 1922, p. 194.

"What the Birth Control Leagues are Doing," Birth Control Review, February 1917, p. 11.

Ferch, Johann to Margaret Sanger, Apr. 15, 1946 (MSP-LC reel 116:003).

Trikojus, V.M. "Alfred Gottschalk 1894-1973," Records of the Australian Academy of Science, Vol. 3, no. 1, Canberra, Australia, 1974.

Amberg, Ruth. “The Ferch Clinic in Vienna,” Birth Control Review September 1929, pp. 260-61.

Sanger, Margaret, and Hannah Stone, eds. The Practice of Contraception, (Baltimore, 1931), pp. 268-271, and 307.

If you used a basic online encyclopedia, such as Wikipedia, include that with a link to the specific entry.


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